sitemap | home
print pdf

ESL Scales

4:11:13: Incorporates a number of identifiable stages

in common texts
4:9:7: Maintains a storyline and some characterisation of events

6:9:1: Writes a variety of fictional and non fictional narratives using orientation, complication and resolution

Item & Stimulus

Writing task criterion 2


Item Descriptor

The organisation of narrative features including orientation, complication and resolution into an appropriate and effective text structure

Statement of
Learning for English

Students have the opportunity to draw on their knowledge of texts and language to clarify meaning.

They use typical generic structure of imaginative texts (orientation, complication and resolution)

Skill Focus:
Identifying text structure — narrative structure
STAGE 2—3: Supporting ESL Students


Text deconstruction

Students analyse published texts to identify purpose and structure in narratives

Controlled (modelled)

Exploring metalanguage (QTF)

Students are given copy of a short narrative

The short narrative is provided on OHT or as an enlarged copy. The teacher models how to identify and highlight the orientation, complication and resolution sections on the text.

Students are given this proforma:


Teacher models how to deconstruct the text by recording details of the components of the text in the proforma.

Exploring deep knowledge (QTF)

The teacher provides several orientations from a variety of narratives on A3 paper.

Students analyse the text orientations to identify common and differing elements.


Brainstorm and record a number of titles for a story.

For example: The Haunted House, Lost at Sea, Space Adventure, Found

Organise students in pairs or small groups.

Using the scaffolding proforma provided, students choose a title and write an orientation that matches the scenario.

Students share their orientation scenarios in a writers circle.

The teacher can create OHT of students texts and the class identifies the WHEN, WHERE, WHO using different colour OHT pens.


Exploring deep understanding and problematic knowledge (QTF)

Students are grouped into pairs. They work together to sequence narratives that have been cut out and segmented. Then they categorise the text into the headings of Orientation, Complication and Resolution

Students reorganise a jumbled up narrative from their guided reading text. They need to:

  • order the events
  • match the text to three structure sub-headings of Orientation, Complication and Resolution


Students in pairs or groups compare two texts (one effective narrative and the other poorly constructed).

Using the scaffold provided, students analyse the components of each section of two narrative examples. An example is given below:


Exploring deep understanding (QTF)

In pairs, students compare the two scaffolds and score the effectiveness of each component 1 being ineffective and 5 being highly effective.