Literacy Overview

The 2009 National Assessment Program Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) Teaching Strategies make reference to:

  1. The Quality Teaching Framework (QTF)
  2. The Modelled, Guided and Independent teaching cycle
  3. The National Statements of Learning for English (SOL)
  4. Strategies, and activities to support those strategies
  5. Critical aspects of literacy development K—10 continuum

1. Quality Teaching Framework

Teachers are using the Quality Teaching model as a way of delivering the curriculum to improve student achievement. Quality Teaching has helped focus teachers attention on HOW they teach as much as on WHAT they teach.

Further information can be found at:

Quality Teaching Framework


2. Modelled, Guided and Independent Teaching and Learning Cycle

This model for explicit teaching is a recursive process which builds students knowledge in quality learning environments.

Teachers use literacy teaching strategies to introduce new knowledge, practise new literacy learning, consolidate literacy learning, and transfer and apply literacy learning. The purposes of modelled teaching, guided teaching and independent teaching are to:

  • meet individual literacy learning needs
  • move student literacy learning from dependent to independent
  • support and extend student literacy learning.

Modelled teaching

Modelled teaching is mainly teacher-regulated and involves explicit or direct instruction in new learning, the focus of which is informed by assessment information. Students can say, "I have learned something new."

Guided teaching

Guided teaching involves supported student practice where students take increasing control of new literacy learning. Students can say, "I will have a go by myself, but I might need some help."

Independent teaching

Independent teaching involves supporting students to consolidate, transfer and apply new literacy learning. Students can say, "I know how to do it and when, where and why to use it."

These descriptions demonstrate how the degree of teacher and student control changes as students move from being dependent learners to independent learners. They have been informed by the previous NSW State Literacy Strategy (1997) and the work of Louden, et al., (2005) In Teachers Hands and Christine Edwards-Groves (2003) On task: focussed literacy learning.

Further information can be found at

3. The Statements of Learning for English

'Statements of Learning for English' is not a curriculum in itself. Instead, it contains a series of statements about essential opportunities to learn in this particular domain which education jurisdictions have agreed to implement in their own curriculum documents... 'Statements of Learning for English' contains two critical elements: the Statements themselves and their professional elaborations, which work together as a package, with the Statements also represented in expanded form in the professional elaborations.

Page 1 Statements of Learning for English Curriculum Corporation (2005).

4. Strategies and activities to support the strategies

The Teaching Strategies documents provide teachers with strategies which will assist students to:

  • access the knowledge they need using strategies that are explicit, relevant and transferable to new situations
  • develop their understanding of concepts
  • transfer the skills they have developed by practising the strategies to new, contextual and varied situations.

5. Critical Aspects of Literacy development K—10 continuum

The K—10 Literacy continuum (draft) maps the critical aspects necessary for the development of literacy for students from before school to Year 10. The aspects identified are:

  • Reading texts
  • Comprehension
  • Aspects of writing
  • Concepts about print
  • Phonics
  • Phonemic awareness
  • Aspects of speaking
  • Vocabulary knowledge.

Please download further information regarding Critical Aspects of Literacy continuum