- teaching strategies
Skills Focus: Identifying and using direct and indirect speech
Building the foundation with lower-order thinking activities (introduce concept, respond and evaluate) followed by higher-order activities that require students to analyse texts and separate information into categories
Activities to support the strategy
These activities are designed to complement an author study on Morris Gleitzman.
The implementation of prior modelled reading sessions, deconstruction and reconstruction of parts of the text is advised before using these lessons. This ensures students have an understanding of the vocabulary used, the story line, the text structures, the targeted audience, characters and settings.
Focus text: Misery Guts by Morris Gleitzman
The teacher explains that the purpose of the activity is to help students to identify the difference between direct speech and indirect speech.
Exploring metalanguage (QTF)
Photocopy the focus text excerpts, enlarging them onto A3 paper.
Guide students to identify:
- the speech marks in direct speech
- the use of first person: I'm just trying to cheer you both up, he said (text two).
In this example, third person would be used to show the speakers involvement in indirect speech He said that he was just trying to cheer them both up.
- The use of second person, 'How do you mean?' (text one) to refer to the recipient of the speech. Translated to indirect speech, it may read Mr Crouch asked him what he meant.
- The use of past tense in indirect speech. For example, Mr Crouch told him to go back to his seat and finish boiling his tap water (text one).
- the use of present tense in direct speech, Sir, said Keith, you know all those science magazines you read (text one)
Students colour-code the sentences according to whether the speech is direct or indirect. Students write the examples into the charts.
Create laminated text cards using resource and A3 sheets for sorting text cards.
Arrange students into groups of three.
Issue students with the sorting proforma.
Students read the text to their group and then sort (categorise) into direct and indirect speech.
Ask students to circle the first verb after the saying verb in the direct speech examples.
- What happens to this verb when you convert direct speech to indirect speech?
- Why does the tense change?